The most common metabolic bone disease in the world is osteoporosis . Today, it is seen in every 4 women after menopause and every 8 men over 60 years old. Osteoporosis is characterized by deterioration of bone microarchitecture , decrease in bone mass and an increase in fracture risk accordingly. It is described as an insidious disease because it does not cause pain until a fracture occurs in the bones.
Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Specialist Prof. Dr. Meral Bayramoğlu states that fractures due to osteoporosis can occur even with a slight fall or sudden bending forward, and says, “Fractures can cause severe pain that reduces quality of life, cause disability, and even cause a person to be bedridden for a long time.”
Protection from osteoporosis is of vital importance. Advancing age, being a woman and genetic factors are the unchangeable risks of this disease. When measures are taken against risk factors that can be changed, such as mistakes made in life and eating habits, osteoporosis can be prevented to a large extent. So which factors 1. Leading a sedentary life
Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Specialist Prof. Dr. Meral Bayramoğlu pointed out that the bone is in a continuous cycle of construction and destruction, and said, “The most stimulating factor in the construction here is the load on the bone. Therefore, the risk of developing osteoporosis in people who do sports such as walking and jogging is less than inactive people. For this reason, it will be beneficial for both bone and cardiovascular health for people who need to stay at a desk for a long time due to work, taking a walk every day regularly.
2. Calcium deficient nutrition
Prof. Dr. Meral Bayramoğlu points out that the calcium taken into the body during childhood and growth is stored in the bones and that this storage process continues with a decrease until the age of 30, and says: “Therefore, taking enough calcium with food until the age of 30 is very important for the prevention of osteoporosis that may develop in later ages. It is recommended that every adult take 1000 mg of calcium daily for healthy bones. This amount can go up to 1200-1500 mg in children, pregnant women and post-menopausal women. The most well-known source of calcium is milk and dairy products. Green vegetables also contain calcium.”
3. Insufficient protein intake
Daily protein requirement is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight. But the effects of dietary protein on bone health are a little more complex. While it is known that a very low protein diet impairs bone quality, it has been shown that an extremely high protein diet can also cause osteoporosis, especially if calcium intake is insufficient. A balanced consumption of protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates and fats positively affects bone health.
4. Smoking habit
It is a known fact that smoking reduces bone mineral density. Another known effect of smoking is that it delays the healing of fractures in the bones. However, it is debated whether these negative effects on bones are due to smoking alone, or whether smokers often have an unhealthy diet and have a weaker immune system.
5. Not benefiting from sunlight sufficiently
Vitamin D is required for the absorption of calcium taken from the body from the digestive system. The daily need is 600-800 IU. While vitamin D can be obtained from foods such as eggs and sea fish, the most important source of vitamin D is sunlight. Sun rays are absorbed through the skin and become active vitamin D by going through various processes in the liver and kidneys in the body.
6. Exaggerating coffee consumption
Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Specialist Prof. Dr. Meral Bayramoğlu warns that consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day reduces the effectiveness of cells involved in bone formation, adding, “Caffeine not only reduces calcium absorption from the digestive system, but also increases calcium excretion from the kidneys. When the amount of calcium in the body is low, bone formation cannot occur. Therefore, do not consume more than 3 cups of coffee a day. It is also beneficial to prefer decaffeinated coffee,” he says.
7. Excessive salt use
Excessive salt consumption can cause osteoporosis by increasing the amount of calcium excreted in the urine. The World Health Organization draws attention to the fact that daily salt consumption should not exceed 5 grams, as it causes damage to bones as well as many health problems.